A discussion on the factors that have a negative impact on the fetus

While the effects of maternal prenatal use of cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamines on infant cognitive development and behavior remain controversial owing to confounding environmental factors Bays, ; Tronick and Beeghly,the effects on maternal-infant interactions are more established Breiter et al.

Some genes result in poor outcomes following common environmental exposures e. Children with an imbalance of TH1 and TH2 are more likely to develop allergies and asthma when confronted with allergens.


Maternal life event stress and congenital anomalies. It is claimed there is a significant relationship between height of infant and maternal anxiety in a way that in mothers with high levels of anxiety, the birth height is shorter than birth height in non-anxious mothers 6 These things can be different for everyone, but figure out what works best for you and it will likely be comforting to your baby.

Of note, we observed a higher mean gestational age for pregnancies that ended with a vaginal delivery compared with cesarean sections. The gestational age at birth and the type of delivery of the pregnancies afflicted with HDFN have changed over time. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts and finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers.

Examples of such programming during particular sensitive or critical periods of development are coming to light. Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome;what needs to be done.

Not infrequently, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, or other adjustment difficulties may ensue as a result of the underlying illness, increasing risk for treatment nonadherence Wise et al.

Pregnancy and Teratogens

This is for good reason. Some body stores that are beneficial at lower levels can become harmful at higher levels: Implications for the health of children.

Epidemiological studies have shown sex specific differences in fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Medical staff is working to improve screening practices to identify at-risk women, as well as improving intervention tactics to guarantee the safety and health of mother and baby.

If more proximal influences are mixed with more distal ones, they may appear to have stronger effects, even in situations in which more distal factors are operating on a multiplicity of proximal influences and therefore have cumulatively greater effect overall.

They suckle more in response to it Mehler et al. As children age, they spend more time in physical locations outside the home, such as child care, school, and workplace settings that expose them to new physical environments. Approximately 4 to 5 percent of birth defects are caused by exposure to a teratogen.

Webb R, Ayers S.

Pregnancy and Teratogens

This means a higher rate of congenital malformation, low birth weight, infertility, and spontaneous abortion as a result of overexposure to these forms of radiation.

In some cases, the physical environment can be modified to improve outcomes e. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is an infection that can be transmitted from cat feces to humans. The increased vulnerability described among boys in general can be attributed to the male gender, keeping in mind that the male fetoplacental unit also includes the male placenta.

In other words, the effects of prenatal stress on Glucose metabolism in adulthood are related to sex What makes you feel happy, healthy, and relaxed will make the baby feel those things too. Illegal and street drugs can have all sorts of negative effects on you, as you likely know, but also on your fetus.

A parent can pass on a defective or abnormal gene or set of genes, a malfunction can occur during combination of maternal and paternal DNA, or exposure to an outside substance or condition can occur after conception that alters the genes in the fetus.

Strengths and limitations We present a large prospective, longitudinal study with pregnancies in which maternal factors were well characterized. These genes are known as susceptibility genes. Examples include social and interactional behaviors e.

Other heavy metals, like lead, which used to be used in paint and gasoline is also harmful to a fetus.A conflict between the external societal role assigned to an adolescent based on biological gender and the internal gender identity formed by the adolescent can.

What factors influence prenatal development? Life Span Development I Chapter 9 2 There are many factors that can negatively impact the developing person. The presence of alcohol in the fetus’s bloodstream triggers widespread cell death in the fetal brain.

A Review of the Effects of Anxiety During Pregnancy on Children’s Health

factors that affect growth impart an indelible impression on adult To have impact on the fetus, maternal psychological functioning must be translated into physiological effects. Three mechanisms by orders or negative emotionality at preschool age (Martin, Noyes, Wisenbaker, & Huttunen, ; O’Connor, Heron, Golding, Beveridge.

It is evidenet that research exists that outlines the potential negative impact that maternal stress can have on an infant during prenatal development. In more recent years, efforts have been made to help reduce the amount of stress that a pregnant woman may have.

Several factors influence the amount of damage a teratogen can have, including dose or level of exposure, heredity, age of the teratogen, and any other negative influences (for example, several teratogens or a teratogen combined with poor health).

The impact of such hazards involves the interaction of a number of factors, including the timing of the exposure, the duration of the exposure, and possible genetic vulnerabilities that may be present.

A discussion on the factors that have a negative impact on the fetus
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